Super Insulation Technology

CSM employs a specially designed radiation shield with an incredibly low emissivity coefficient (ε), which indicates its exceptional ability to minimize heat emission. This radiation shield is manufactured to be just a few micrometers thick, significantly reducing the absorption of radiation heat (Qr) into the cryogenic system.

While the radiation shield effectively reflects a portion of the radiation heat, it also absorbs and transmits some of the heat to the adjacent layers through solid conduction. To mitigate radial heat transfer between these adjacent layers of the radiation shield, we incorporate spacers. These spacers are made from our proprietary inorganic glass fiber material, which is both flame retardant and compatible for use with liquid oxygen, certified to meet US DOT MC-338 standards. The spacers are manufactured with a specific porosity that allows for the formation of an efficient thermal barrier in the form of interstitial vacuum spaces.

To ensure the highest quality and performance of our super insulation materials, we subject them to a meticulous degassing treatment process. This process involves subjecting the materials to extreme heat and ultra-high vacuum conditions, combined with cryogenic condensation procedures. Through this procedure, volatile hydrocarbons, moisture vapor, and lighter gas molecules are effectively removed.

The twin-layer super insulation material is then expertly applied to the process pipes using a semi-automatic wrapping machine, forming multiple layers of insulation. Careful control of the wrapping load guarantees a consistent bulk density of 25 layers/cm throughout the entire length of the pipe. To achieve the desired radiation heat barrier, more than 40 layers of the radiation shield are meticulously applied, based on our calculation model. Following this application, the product undergoes a high-temperature baking and ultra-high vacuum evacuation process to eliminate any remaining moisture and gas molecule residues from the annular space. The final outcome is a product with an extremely low apparent thermal conductivity (Kt) that is virtually free of heat leaks, thereby preventing costly boil-off of your cryogen.

To ensure accurate heat leak calculations during the design of a cryogenics system, it is crucial for the manufacturer to conduct tests that determine the apparent thermal conductivity value of the Multilayer Insulation (MLI) and provide this data. 

By conducting these tests, the manufacturer can obtain precise measurements of MLI's thermal conductivity, which is essential for calculating heat leaks accurately. This information plays a critical role in designing a cryogenics system that effectively minimizes heat transfer and maintains the desired temperature levels.

Therefore, it is of utmost importance that the manufacturer prioritizes these tests and shares the resulting data. By doing so, they enable engineers and designers to make informed decisions when selecting the appropriate MLI and optimizing the system's thermal performance.

In conclusion, the manufacturer's commitment to conducting tests and providing accurate data on MLI's apparent thermal conductivity is a vital step towards ensuring the efficient and reliable operation of cryogenics systems. CSM can provide the white paper as regard to our product heat leaks and how it measured up against competitive product technologies in the market.   

Key benefits of multilayers super insulation:
  • Lesser cryogen boil-off
  • Elimimating two phase flow in pipeline
  • Stable cryogen pressure & temperature to your equipment
  • Lesser cryogen boil off means faster payback to your investment

At CSM, we are committed to utilizing advanced manufacturing techniques and processes to deliver superior products that meet the stringent demands of cryogenic applications. By employing our cutting-edge insulation solutions, you can achieve optimal thermal efficiency and minimize wasteful heat loss in your cryogenic systems.

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Static & Dynamic Vacuum Insulation

We offer two types of vacuum insulation options for liquid nitrogen systems, tailored to meet your specific requirements:

1. Static Vacuum: In this option, the vacuum annular space is meticulously evacuated and sealed at the factory. The static vacuum insulation is designed to maintain a consistent level of vacuum throughout its lifespan, providing excellent thermal insulation for your system. This means that once the vacuum is created and sealed, there is no need for further evacuation or maintenance on-site.

2. Dynamic Vacuum: With the dynamic vacuum insulation, we provide a continuous on-site evacuation process facilitated by a vacuum pump. This type of insulation ensures that the vacuum annular space remains at an optimal level throughout the operation of your system. The dynamic vacuum insulation offers the advantage of adaptability, allowing adjustments to the vacuum level based on specific requirements or changes in operating conditions.

Understanding the differences between static and dynamic vacuum insulation options is crucial for selecting the most suitable solution for your liquid nitrogen system. Factors such as the frequency of use, required insulation performance, and operational flexibility should be considered when making this decision.

By offering both options, we aim to provide you with the flexibility to choose the vacuum insulation that aligns best with your needs. Please don't hesitate to reach out for further information or assistance in selecting the ideal vacuum insulation solution for your liquid nitrogen system. 

To gain a deeper understanding of the distinction between dynamic and static vacuum insulation, click on the blog link below:

Dynamic Vacuum Vs Static Vacuum ( blog post explores the variances between dynamic and static vacuum insulation in detail. By visiting the provided link, you will find valuable insights and comprehensive information that will help you make an informed decision regarding the most suitable type of vacuum insulation for your specific needs.

Typical Structure of Super Insulation


The success of the super-insulation will depend on the following parameters:

  • Outgassing rate of the materials use within the vacuum annular space, such as spacers and radiation shield material
  • Absorption & adsorption rate of the getter and absorbent material use and its ability to perform long period scavenging of various type of gas molocule species form the vacuum annulus, in order to prolong the vacuum integrity
  • Wrapping design and technique to avoid linear heat conduction by the radiation shield itself which will result in increase of heat leaks
  • Bulk density of the radiation shield and spacer is very critical to ensure solid conduction is kept to the minimum. Increase in bulk density is know to increase solid heat conduction between layers of MLI

To gain a comprehensive understanding of super insulation technology, click on the blog link below:

Super Insulation Technology ( .This blog post delves into the intricacies of super insulation, providing detailed insights into its characteristics and advantages. By visiting the provided link, you will access a wealth of valuable information that will assist you in making well-informed decisions concerning the application of super insulation for your specific requirements.


Close Tolerance Bayonet Technology

A close tolerance bayonet is a vital component in vacuum insulated cryogenic piping systems. It ensures a tight connection between inner and outer pipes, minimizing heat transfer and maintaining the required low temperature environment. By reducing thermal conduction, it optimizes insulation performance and acts as a barrier, creating a vacuum-sealed space that minimizes heat transfer through conduction, convection, and radiation.

Additionally, the close tolerance design prevents leaks, offering a precise metal to metal seal that minimizes the risk of cryogenic fluid escape. Other advantages include eliminating the need for elastomer O-rings or PTFE gasket as sealing material at cryogenic temperature. Both materials in essence are not suitable for cryogenic use due to its unfavorable thermal expansion coefficient at cryogenic temperature. Elastomer O-ring when exposed cryogenic temperature will become brittle and lose its sealing capability. Broken O-ring or PTFE material shading are major root cause for cryogenic fluids contamination and causing blockage and failure to downstream instruments and equipment.

Below are other benefits of close tolerance bayonet:

  • Eliminate the need for elastomer O-ring and PTFE material for sealing
  • Lowest heat leak in its class
  • Extremely close tolerance design to minimize convective and conductive heat transfer
  • Higher heat barrier factor, eliminate condensation or frosting at clamp joints
  • Installation flexibility, suitable for any installation position, vertical or horizontal
  • Bi-directional flow direction

To gain a comprehensive understanding of the differences between high-quality and low-quality bayonet connections, click on the link below:

Close Tolerance Bayonet (

DataSheet Bayonet Connection